Pesticide Treatment Timelines

   Pesticides in the Hive

Varroa mites - Varroa destructor
Small Hive Beetle - Aethena tumida
Tracheal mite - Acarapis wood
Wax moth - Galleria mellonella
Nosema - Nosema apis
and Nosema ceranae

   Pesticides in the Hive
Pests
Active Ingredients
Products
1. Varroa mites - Varroa destructor
2. Small Hive Beetle -Aethena tumida
3. Tracheal mite- Acarapis wood
4. Wax moth - Galleria mellonella
5. Nosema - Nosema apis

1. tau-fluvalinate
2. coumaphos
3. formic acid
4. menthol
5. thymol
6.
para-dichloro-benzene
7. sucrose octanoate

1. Apistan®
2. CheckMite+®
3. Sucrocide™
4. Api-Life VAR®
5. Mite-Away Quick Strips®
6. GardStar 40% EC®
7. Mite-A-thol®
8. Para-moth®
9. Fumigator®
10. Fumidil-B®
11.
Fumigilin-B®
12. Grease Patties

You must observe a required withholding period for many of the chemicals used in the hive. This is the period immediately prior to a honey flow during which time a chemical may not be present in the hive. This requires careful planning in the spring, but poses no particular problem in the fall because chemicals are applied only after removing the fall crop. This information does not constitue an endorsement of any product.
   Varroa destructor
   Pest    Product    Treatment
Varroa destructor
Apistan®
(tau-fluvalinate)
  • Dosage: Use one strip for each 5 combs of bees or less in each brood chamber (Langstroth deep frames or equivalent in other sizes).
  • Special instructions:
    • READ LABEL for most complete and current directions.
    • Wear latex gloves when handling strips.
    • Hang strips within two combs of the edge of the bee cluster.
    • If two deep supers are used for the brood nest, hang APISTAN strips in alternate corners of the cluster, in the top and bottom super.
    • For best chemical distribution, use APISTAN when daytime high temperatures are at least 50 ºF.
    • Treat 1-2 times per year.
    • Do not apply when honey supers are on the hive. Honey supers may be replaced after strips are removed.
  • Treatment dates: in the early spring starting 42-56 days before adding honey supers; and again, right after removing the fall crop
  • Treatment period: 42-56 days
  • Withholding period: none
 
 
 
   Pest    Product    Treatment
Varroa destructor
CheckMite+®
(coumaphos)
  • Dosage: Use one strip for each 5 combs of bees in each brood chamber (Langstroth deep frames or equivalent in other sizes).
  • Special instructions:
    • READ LABEL for most complete and current directions.
    • Chemical resistant gloves must be worn when handling strips (nitrile rubber only, NO latex).
    • Remove honey supers before treating. Supers may be replaced 14 days after completing the treatment and removing strips.
    • Hang strips in separate spaces between the combs as near the center of the bee/brood cluster as possible.
    • If two deep brood chambers are used for the brood nest, hang the CheckMite+ strips in both the top and bottom brood chambers.
    • Treat all infested colonies in the apiary.
    • Treat 1-2 times per year.
    • Treatments must be applied at a time when bees are not producing a surplus honey crop.
  • Treatment dates: in the early spring starting 56-59 days before adding honey supers; and again, right after removing the fall crop.
  • Treatment period: 42-45 days
  • Withholding period: 14 days
   Pest    Product    Treatment
Varroa destructor
Sucrocide®
  • Dosage: Mix three tablespoons (TBS) concentrate with two gallons of water in a dedicated pump-action hand sprayer. Spray both sides of each comb at a rate of 1.5 oz per comb. Two gallons of prepared mixture should treat about 85 combs. Make a total of three applications at 7-10 day intervals.
  • Special instructions:
    • READ LABEL for most complete and current directions.
    • Chemical resistant gloves must be worn when handling strips (nitrile rubber only, NO latex).
    • Do not apply to winter cluster or when temperature is < 55 °F.
  • Treatment dates: Whenever mites are observed.
  • Treatment period: Make a total of three applications at 7-10 day intervals.roductPest
  • Withholding period: None
   Pest    Product    Treatment
Varroa destructor
Api-Life VAR®
  • Dosage: Each treatment consists of the application of 3 tablets, with one tablet being applied every 7-10 days. Leave last tablet in place for 12 days, and then remove all residual material. Break each tablet into four equal pieces and place on top bars towards outside corners of hive. This will treat a colony with 8-20 Langstroth frames or equivalent
  • Special instructions:
    • READ LABEL for most complete and current directions.
    • Special personal protection equipment is required. See label before using.
    • Apply when colony is reduced to one or two brood chambers.
    • Break the tablet into four equal pieces and place on top bars towards as shown in picture.
    • Place tablets in screen containers to prevent bees from removing material.
    • Do not use during honey flows.
    • Do not harvest honey from brood chambers of colony feed supers.
    • Use when average daily temperature are between 59 °F and 69 °F.
    • DO NOT use when temperature is above 90 °F.
    • DO NOT apply during honey flow or when honey supers are on the hive.
  • Treatment dates: Two treatments per year. Typically in the spring and fall.
  • Treatment period: Total of 26-32 days
  • Withholding period: 1 month
   Pest    Product    Treatment
Varroa destructor
Mite-Away Quick StripsTM
  • Dosage: One pad for a single or double brood chamber with 6 - 20 combs of bees.
  • Special instructions:
    • READ LABEL for most complete and current directions.
    • Special personal protection equipment is required. See label before using.Special requirements apply regarding re-entry after treatment.
    • Requires signage with date and time of treatment.
  • Treatment dates: Early spring and/or early fall or whenever needed and when other required conditions can be met.
  • Treatment period: 7 days
  • Withholding period: none
   Small Hive Beetle
   Pest    Product    Treatment
Small Hive Beetle
(Aethena tumida)
CheckMite+®
(coumaphos)
  • Dosage: 1 strip with cardboard applicator
  • Special instructions:
    • READ LABEL for most complete and current directions.
    • Remove honey supers before application of CheckMite+ strips and do not replace until 14 days after the treatment is completed and the strips are removed.
    • Chemical resistant gloves must be worn when handling strips (nitrile rubber only, NO latex).
    • Prepare a piece of corrugated cardboard approximately 4x4 inches by removing one side of cardboard. Remove one CheckMite+ strip from package. Cut the strip in half crossways and staple the two pieces to the corrugated side of the cardboard. Tape over the smooth side of the cardboard (the side opposite the strips) with duct tape, shipping tape or similar tape to prevent the bees from chewing and removing the cardboard. Alternatively, use one-sided plastic corrugated sheets. Place cardboard as near to the center of the bottom board as possible with the strips facing down. Make sure the bottom board is clean and the strips lay flat.
    • Treat 1-4 times per year.
  • Treatment dates: as needed
  • Treatment period: 42-45 days
  • Withholding period: 14 days
   Pest    Product    Treatment
Small Hive Beetle
(Aethena tumida)
GardStar 40% EC®
(permethrin
formulated as
an emulsifiable
concentrate that mixes with water)
  • Dosage: 5 ml EC per gallon water applied as drench immediately in front of hives at a rate of 6 hives per gallon of mix.
  • Special instructions:
    • READ LABEL for most complete and current directions.
    • DO NOT USE IN HIVE!
    • Chemical resistant gloves must be worn when handling strips (nitrile rubber only, NO latex).
    • Apply as soon as beetles or larvae are observed in or around the hive.
    • Thoroughly wet the ground in an area 18-24 inches in front of each hive.
    • Apply in late evening after bees become inactive.
    • As pre-placement cleanup for an apiary, apply to entire ground surface 24-48 hours before placement.
  • Treatment dates: as needed
  • Treatment period: N/A
  • Withholding period: N/A
   Tracheal Mite
   Pest    Product    Treatment
Tracheal Mite
(Acarapis woodi)
Mite-A-thol®
(menthol crystals)
  • Dosage: 50 grams per colony
  • Special instructions:
    • READ LABEL for most complete and current directions.
    • Apply after removing honey crop.
    • Chemical resistant gloves must be worn when handling crystals.
    • Apply when temperature is between 60 and 80 °F.
    • Apply in a 7 x 7 inch screen package on top of top bars of upper hive body of two-story hive.
    • Apply additional 50-gram doses as needed so as to maintain crystals on the hive for 10 -12 weeks.
    • WILL DAMAGE BEES IF APPLIED DURING HOT WEATHER
    • NOT EFFECTIVE IN COLD WEATHER
    • Tracheal mites are also susceptible to formic acid (MAQS).
  • Treatment dates: early spring and in the fall after removing the honey crop
  • Treatment Period: 10-12 weeks
  • Withholding Period: 30 days
   Wax Moth
   Pest    Product    Treatment
Wax Moth
(Galleria mellonella)
Para-moth® or Fumigator®
(1,4-di-chloro-benzene or PDB)
  • Dosage: 3 oz. per stack of supers per application
  • Special instructions:
    • READ LABEL for most complete and current directions.
    • Wear full protective gear, including goggles/face-shield and vitron or nitrile rubber gloves (NO latex).
    • Use with adequate ventilation to keep airborne concentration at or below 75 ppm – 8 hour TWA.
    • Stack 5 deeps, 8 mediums (Illinois shallows), or 10 regular shallows.
    • Tape cracks between supers.
    • Apply crystals on a paper towel placed on the top bars of the top super.
    • Use a dedicated scoop to pick-up and deposit crystals.
    • Cover stack.
    • ONLY FOR USE ON STORED COMBS!
    • DO NOT USE IN HIVE OR ON STORED PRODUCTS!
    • THOROUGHLY AIR OUT treated combs before placing on hive!
  • Treatment dates: because PDB does not kill the egg stage, make two applications at 14-day intervals. Thereafter, check combs during warm weather for evidence of moths and retreat as needed.
  • Treatment Period: N/A
  • Withholding Period: N/A
   Nosema
   Pest    Product    Treatment
Nosema
(Nosema apis and
N. ceranae)

Fumigilin-B®
  • Dosage: Apply in the fall at a rate of 2 gallons medicated syrup per hive. Apply in the spring at a rate of 1 gallon medicated syrup per hive.
  • Special instructions:
    • READ LABEL for most complete and current directions.
    • Mixing instructions. Fumigilin-B mixes best when added to warm water. Mix one teaspoon in 4 oz warm water, let it set a few minutes until the water is absorbed, shake the mixture, and then add it to 1 gallon of sugar syrup. For larger quantities, mix a 9.5 gm jar with approximately one gallon of warm water and then add to 100–120 gallons of sugar syrup.
    • Mix sugar syrup 1:1 (1s:1w, by wt) in the spring and 2:1 (2s:1w, by wt) in the fall.
    • FALL: feed after honey supers have been removed.
    • SPRING: feed at least 30 days before the nectar flow.
    • Treatment recommendations may change is more is learned about Nosema ceranae which has largely diplaced N. apis.
  • Treatment dates:
    • Early spring
    • Early fall
  • Treatment Period: N/A
  • Withholding Period: 30 days




 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 
© Copyright 2008, All rights reserved, Nicholas W. Calderone, Associate Professor,
Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 

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Updated July 2006
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